Ветчинникова Л.В., Титов А.Ф.
Карельская береза в заказниках Республики Карелия: история, современное состояние и проблемы
// Ботанический журнал. Т. 103, № 2. 2018. C. 256–265
Vetchinnikova L.V., Titov A.F. Karelian birch in sanctuaries in the Republic of Karelia: history, current state, problems // Botanicheskii Zhurnal. Vol 103, No 2. 2018. P. 256–265
Keywords: botanical sanctuaries (zakazniks), karelian birch, Betula pendula var. carelica, figured grain, gene pool, Republic of Karelia, Russia
The history of establishment of the botanical sanctuaries («zakazniks») of the Karelian birch Betula pendula Roth var. carelica (Mercklin) Hamet-Ahti in the Republic of Karelia is outlined; changes in their condition since foundation (over 30 years) and challenges for their conservation and restoration are described. The results of the surveys of the Karelian birch botanical sanctuaries are reported. The gene pool of the tree in Karelia (and in Russia at large) has largely been lost. It was found that the main causes of this situation are massive illegal cuttings, as well as some biological features of the tree (fragmented distribution range, low competitive capacity, trait segregation in seed progeny, etc.). One of the negative outcomes is the degradation of the genetic structure of the Karelian birch populations, as evidenced, for instance, by the analysis of the genetic diversity of the populations using microsatellite markers. In spite of the considerable decline in the Karelian birch abundance, its natural populations in Karelia remain the largest ones in Russia (ca. 2000 trees). To preserve the genetic resources of this unique tree species, however, it is necessary to organize full-fledged operation of the botanical sanctuaries (guarding of the nature sanctuaries, control over their activities, adequate tending) and adopt the relevant laws and regulations.
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